بحران دولت در لیبی و امنیت اروپا

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه هیات علمی گروه علوم سیاسی

2 دکترای مطالعات استراتژیک، استادیار علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه ایت ا... العظمی بروچردی

3 دانش آموخته ارشد روابط بین الملل دانشگاه گیلان

چکیده

از زمان سرنگونی قذافی، هیچ دولتی تاکنون نتوانسته است با اقتدار، حاکمیت واحدی را در لیبی ایجاد کند. لذا امروزه، لیبی دارای دو دولت مستقل است؛ «دولت وحدت ملی» که توسط سازمان ملل پشتیبانی می‌شود و«دولت موقت» که توسط پارلمان طبرق حامی ژنرال «خلیفه حفتر» در شهر البیضا در شرق این کشور تشکیل شده است. در فضای پساقذافی امید می‌رفت که حکومت جدید بتواند لیبی را به سمت مردم‌سالاری هدایت کند؛ اما در مقام عمل، تقسیم حاکمیت و تعارضات شدید سیاسی میان مدعیان قدرت، بحران اقتدار و ناامنی‌های ناشی از خشونت کنشگران قبیله‌ای و نیروهای سلفی، سبب شده است تا دولت پساقذافی عملاً حائز عنوان دولت ورشکسته شود. امروزه، با شدت گرفتن درگیری‌های میدانی میان گرو‌ه‌های مختلف سیاسی از جمله بین خلیفه حفتر و دولت وفاق ملی در طرابلس، امکان دولت‌سازی در این کشور، در هاله‌ای از ابهام قرار گرفته است. پرسش اصلی مقاله این است: «بحران دولت در شرایط سیاسی نوین لیبی چه تأثیری بر امنیت کشورهای اروپایی دارد؟» فرضیه مقاله این است که «گسترش جنگ داخلی و هرج ومرج در دوران پسا فذافی، موجب شده است تا لیبی به عنوان یک دولت ورشکسته ، به پایگاهی برای مهاجرت گروه های ترورستی و قاچاق انسان به اروپا تبدیل شود.»

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

State Crisis in Libya and Security of the Europe

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rashid Recabian 1
  • Mahdi Mohammad Nia 2
  • mehrdad alepour 3
1 Assistant Professor of Political Science , Ayatollh Boroujerdi University
2 Ph.D. in strategic Studies, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Ayatollah Boroujerdi University
3 Senior Lecturer in International Relations at the University of Guilan
چکیده [English]

Since the fall of Qaddafi, no government has ever able to establish a unified sovereignty in Libya. So today, Libya has two independent states: the National Unity Government which is being supported by the United Nations and the interim government formed by the parliament of Tobruk, a supporter of the general, Khalifa Haftar in al-Bayda. In the post-Gaddafi era, it was hoped that the new government could lead Libya toward democracy, but, due to the division of sovereignty and political conflict between the seekers of power, a crisis of authority and insecurities caused by violent tribal activists and Salafists led the post-authoritarian state turned out to be regarded as a failed state. With the intensification of conflicts between various political groups, including Haftar and the National Unity Government in Tripoli, the possibility of state-building in this country has been confused. The main question is that "How does the government's crisis in Libya's new political conditions affect the security of European countries?" The hypothesis of the article is that "the expansion of civil war and chaos during post-Gaddafi era has led Libya, as a failed state, to be a base for the migration of terrorist groups and human trafficking into Europe".

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Immigration"
  • "Libya"
  • "security"
  • "EU"
  • "international terrorism"
 اگونسالوو، آلابا(1370)، سیاست چین در آفریقا (1971-1958)، ترجمه گیتی خورسند، تهران: انتشارات امیرکبیر. 
اسلامی،سعید(1393)،"چین: از دره اشک‌ها تا سرمایه‌داری اقتدارگرا"،مطالعات اقتصاد سیاسی بین الملل، سال اول، شماره اول. 
بخشی، احمد(1388)، "بررسی سیر تحول روابط خارجی چین و آفریقا"، پژوهشنامه آفریقا، سال اول،شماره 3. 
جمعی از نویسندگان(1375)، نظریه های روابط بین الملل، ترجمه وحید بزرگی، تهران: انتشارات ماجد. 
سلیمی، حسین(1384)، نظریه های گوناگون درباره جهانی شدن، تهران:انتشارات سمت. 
طاهرنژاد، امید(1394)، "دیپلماسی انرژی جمهوری خلق چین"، اندیشکده راهبردی تبیین،قابل دسترسی در آدرس زیر: http://tabyincenter.ir/index.php/menu-examples/child-items-6/دیپلماسی-انرژی-جمهوری-خلق-چین 
موسوی شفایی، مسعود و دیگران(1393)،"دیپلماسی اقتصادی و قدرت‌یابی چین در عرصه جهانی"، مطالعات اقتصاد سیاسی بین الملل، دوره 1، شماره 2.
قویدل، مهدی(1385)، "نفوذ چین در آفریقا"،فصلنامۀ مطالعات آفریقا،دفتر مطالعات سیاسی و بین المللی وزارت امورخارجه، شماره 4. 
رافائل، سام و داف استوکز(1391)، امنیت انرژی آمریکا در غرب آفریقا، ترجمه محمد حسن ایپکچی، روزنامه دنیای اقتصاد، شماره 2837. 
رمضانی بونش، فرزاد(1393)،" نگاه آفریقایی چین"، قابل دسترسی در آدرس زیر: http://www.iras.ir/fa/doc/note/431/نگاه-آفریقایی-چین
Auken, B., V. (2013), “Obama in Africa to defend US strategic and profit interests”, Accessed on October 2 , 2016, Available at: https: //www .wsws. org/ en/ articles /2013/06/28/afri-j28.html
Brandt, L., & Thomas, G., R. (2008),” China’s Great Economic Transformation”, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chen, W., David, D., & Heiwai, T. (2015), “How similar is Chinese investment in Africa to the West’s?”, Accessed on November 10 , 2016, Available at: http:// www. brookings. Edu /blogs /order-from-chaos/posts /2015/08/18-chinese-investment-africa-chen-dollar-tang
Collinson, E. (2014),“ The 2014 US-Africa Leaders’ Summit by the Numbers” , Accessed on September 20 , 2016, Available at: https:// www. Cgdev .org /blog /2014-us-africa-leaders-summit-numbers
Cooke, J., G. (2009), ‘China’s Soft Power in Africa’, in Chinese Soft Power and Its Implications for the United States, Accessed on May 12 , 2016, Available at: http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/ 090310_chinesesoftpower _chap3.pdf
Coons, C. (2013),“Rapid African growth forcing a re-think in U.S. – Africa trade relations” , Accessed on June 18 , 2016, Available at:http://www.thehabarinetwork.com/rapid-african-growth-forcing-a-re-think-in-u-s-africa-trade-relations
Coughli, C. (2015) ,“China deal threatens only American military base in Africa”, Accessed on October 10 , 2017, Available at: http://www. Telegraph .co. uk/ news /worldnews/africaandindianocean/djibouti/11752759/China-deal-threatens-only-American-military-base-in-Africa.html
Dickey, Lauren(2014), “China and the US Compete for Influence in Africa”, Accessed on April 2 , 2017, Available at: http://thediplomat.com/2014/08/china-and-the-us-compete-for-influence-in-africa/
Dutta, M. (2006),” China’s Industrial Revolution and Economic Presence”, London: World Scientific publishing Co.
Finighan, A. (2014),“China in Africa: investment or exploitation?”, Accessed on May 20 , 2017, Available at:https://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/insidestory/2014/05/china-africa-investment-exploitation-201454154158396626.html
French, H., W. (2004),” China Moves Toward Another West: Central Asia”, New York Times. Friedman, T., L. (2005), ‘Thou Shalt Not Destroy the Centre’, New York Times.
Gang, L. (2015), “Welcome to the 4th China Africa Industrial Forum 2015”, Accessed on January 18 , 2016, Available at: http: //gh2 .mofcom .gov. cn /article /chinafair /201509/20150901123000.shtml
Gill, B., & Yanzhong, H. (2006),”Sources , Limits of Chinese “soft Power”, Survival, 48(2).
Hanauer, L., & Lyle, J., M. (2013),“CHINA IN AFRICA Implications of a Deepening Relationship”, Accessed on April 14 , 2016, Available at: https: //www. rand. Org /pubs/research briefs/RB9760.html
Hooghe, I. (2007),“The Rise of china’s Public Diplomacy”, The Hague, Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael, Clingendael Diplomacy Papers, No. 12.
Jianbo, L. & Zhang, X. (2009), "China’s African Policy and its Soft Power", in Ante Podium, online Journal of World Affairs, Victoria University of Wellington, Accessed on April 14 , 2016, Available at: http://www.victoria.ac.nz/atp/articles/pdf/JianboXiaomin-2009.pdf
Jie, L. (2005), “Chinese Tourists Flocking Overseas”,China Daily.
Kaplan, R. (1998),’Sometimes, Autocracy Breeds Freedom’, New York Times.
Keohane & Nye (1977), Power & Interdependence, (4th Edition), Longman Classics in Political Science.
Kohut, A. (2007),”How the World Sees China”, Accessed on September 19,2017, Available at: http://www.pewglobal.org/2007/12/11/how-the-world-sees-china/
Laughlin, A., Mc., & Ryan, T. (2005),’Africa Looks East for Political Role Models’, Christian Sicence Monitor. Lawson, L. (2007), “U.S. Africa Policy Since the Cold War”, Strategic Insights, Vol. VI, Issue 1.
Leblond, P., & Christine, H. (2013),”Understanding the Drivers of China’s Economic Engagement in Africa”, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Ottawa, Accessed on February 19 , 2017, Available at: https://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/bitstream/10393/30518/1/HAN,%20Yue%2020139.pdf
Muckalia, D., J. (2004),’Africa and China’s Strategic Partnership’, African Security Review, 13(1).
Parkes, D. (2015) , “Overview of Foreign Direct Investment in Africa”, Accessed on June 18 , 2017, Available at: http:// www. kwm. Com /en /de /knowledge /insights /overview-of-foreign-direct-investment-in-africa-20150316
Perlez, J. (2004),’Chinese Move to Eclipse U.S. Apeal in South Asia’, New York Times.
Ploch, L. (2008), “Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa”,Washington,DC: Congressional Research Service, Accessed on July 20, 2017, Available at: http://fpc .state. gov /documents /organization /104287.pdf
Ploch, L. (2011), ‘Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa’, Congressional Research Service, 7-5700, Accessed on October 15,2016, Available at: https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/ RL34003.pdf Ramo, J., C. (2004), “The Beijing Consensus”, London: Foreign Policy Centre.
Rosecrance, R., & Arthur, S. (1973), Interdependence: Myth or Reality, World Politics,26(1),Cambridge University Press.
Schneidman ,W. (2013), “Transforming the U.S.-Africa Commercial Relationship”, Accessed on May 19 , 2016, Available at: http: //www. brookings. Edu /research /reports/2013/04/us-africa-commercial-relationship-schneidman
Schneidman, W., & Landry, S. (2018), “The Trump administration’s Africa strategy: Primacy or partnership?”, Accessed on January 10 , 2019, Available at: https:// www. Brookings .edu/ blog/africa-in-focus/2018/12/20/the-trump-administrations-africa-strategy-primacy-or-partnership/
Shaohui, T. (2015),‘China-Africa Think Tanks Forum kicks off in South Africa’, Accessed on September 19 , 2016, Available at: http://www.xinhuanet.com//english/2015-09/09/c_1346075 7 4 .h tm
Sheridan, G. (2005),” Chinese Model Passes the Test’, The Australian. Shinn, D. (2009),” China’s Engagement in Africa”, in Africa Policy in the Bush Years, ed.J.Stephen Morrison and Jennifer G.Cook (Washington,D.C: CSIS)
Speed, P., A., & Ronald, D. (2011), China, Oil and Global Politics, London & New York: Routledge.
Stiglitz, J. (2014), “A New American Strategy for Business in Africa”, Accessed on June 21 , 2016, Available at: http://www.ft.com/ cms/s/0/5ea74b42-1ae9-11e4-a633-00144feabdc0.html#axzz3u09LhH78
Sun, Y. (2013), “China in Africa: Implications for U.S. Competition and Diplomacy”, at: ‘Top Five Reasons Africa Should Be a Priority for the United States’, Accessed on June 22 , 2016, Available at: http://www.brookings.edu/~/ media /Research /Files /Reports/2013/04/africa%20priority%20united%20states/04_africa_priority_united_states.pdf
Sun, Y., & Jane, O-A. (2014),“The US and China in Africa: Competition or Cooperation?”, Accessed on July 18 , 2016, Available at: http://www .brookings. edu/blogs/africa-in-focus/posts/2014/04/28-us-china-africa-policy-sun
Sun, Y. (2014),”China’s Aid to Africa: Monster or Messiah?”, Accessed on June 28, 2016, Available at: http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2014/02/07-china-aid-to-africa-sun# _ftn3
Sun, Y. (2014), ”Africa in China’s New Foreign Aid White Paper”, Accessed on September 6 , 2016, Available at: http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/africa-in-focus/ posts/2014/07/16-africa-china-foreign-aid-sun
Sun, Y. (2015),”China-Africa Think Tanks Forum: China broadens soft power campaigns in Africa”, Accessed on September 8 , 2017, Available at: http:/ /www. Brookings .edu/blogs/africa-in-focus/posts/2015/10/01-china-africa-think-tank-forum-sun
Sun,Y. (2015),”Xi and the 6th Forum on China-Africa Cooperation: Major commitments, but with questions”, Accessed on November 12 , 2017, Available at: http: //www .brookings.edu/blogs/africa-in-focus/posts/2015/12/07-china-africa-focac-invest ment -economy-sun
Sun, Y. (2018) , “Foresight Africa viewpoint – China’s engagement in Africa: What can we learn in 2018 from the $60 billion commitment?”, Accessed on March 15 , 2018, Available at:https://www.brookings.edu/blog/africa-in-focus/ 2018/0 1/30 /foresight-africa-viewpoint-chinas-engagement-in-africa-what-can-we-learn-in-2018-from-the-60-billion-commitment/
Sutter, R. (2003-2004),” Why Does China Matter’, The Washington Quarterly, 7(1).
Taylor, I. (2006), “China's Oil Diplomacy in Africa”, The International Affairs, 82 (5).
Thompson, D. (2005), “CHINA’S SOFT POWER IN AFRICA: FROM THE ‘BEIJING CONSENSUS’ TO HEALTH DIPLOMACY”, China Brief, 5(21).
Ting’en, Lu. & Peng, K. (1995), General History of Africa: Modern Times, Huadong Normal University Press (Shanghai)
Vines, A., & Indira, C. (2008),”Angola and China: A Pragmatic Partnership”, in U.S.-China Engaement in Africa, ed. Jennifer Cooke (Washington,D.D:CSIS)
Wekesa, B. (2015), “FOCAC comes to Johannesburg: How will it be different? ”, Accessed on September 20 , 2017, Available at:http://china-africa-reporting .co. za /2015/09/focac-comes-to-johannesburg-how-will-it-be-different-focac-watch-1/#sthash.fChietpT.CNlAz3rs.dpuf
Yuch, L. (2012),” China’s ’Going Out, Bringing In’ Policy: The Geo-Economics of China’s Rise”, Presented at a New Era of Geo-economics: Assessing the Interplay of Economics and Political Risk, International Institute of Strategic Studies (IISS) Seminar.
ZHIMIN, C. (2015),”Johannesburg Summit of FOCAC 2015 will deepen Sino-African cooperation”, Accessed on October 17 , 2017, Available at: http:// www. Newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2015-11-28/194789/
Zuma, N., D. (2015), “Second Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) Summit, The Sandston Convention Centre, Johannesburg, South Africa”, Accessed on October 18 , 2017, Available at: https://au.int/fr/node/19397&http://www.au.int/en/newsevents/19397/second-forum-china-africa-cooperation-focac-summit-sandton-convention-centre#sthash.l0aP33gu.dpuf
---, All Africa (2015), “China to roll out new measures to boost China-Africa cooperation: official”, Accessed on September 15 , 2018, Available at: https:/ /allafric a.com/stor ies/2015120 31183.html&http://www.focac.org/eng/ltda/dwjbzjjhys_1/t1320842.htm ---,
China-Africa Cooperation Net (2013),“The Third China-Africa Industrial Cooperation and Development Forum”, China-Africa Industrial Cooperation and Development Forum Secretariat, Accessed on September 15 , 2018, Available at http:// www.zf hz.org/plu s/view. php?aid=5295
---, China-Africa Cooperation Net(2015), “CAIF released African Industrial Advance Index (AIA Index) 2015”, Accessed on September 15 , 2018, Available at: http:// www.zfhz.org/plus/view.php?aid=12630
---,China Daily (2015),“China-Africa trade approaches $300 billion in 2015”, Accessed on July 8 , 2017, Available at: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/business/2015-11/10/ content_22417707.htm
---, INTERNATIONAL MONEYTARY FUND (2018), “SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: Regional Economic Outlook: Domestic Revenue Mobilization and Private Investment”, Accessed on December 31, 2018. Available at: https:/ /www.i mf.o rg/en/Publications/REO/SSA/Issues/2018/04/30/sreo0518
---,New vision(2014),“China-Africa trade surpassed $200 billion in 2013”, Accessed on June 18 , 2017, Available at: https:// www .newvision .co. ug /new_ vision /news/1 338016/china-africa-trade-surpassed-usd200-billion-2013
---, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations (2008), “China’s Foreign Policy and “Soft Power” in South America, Asia, and Africa”, report prepared by Congressional Research Service, Library on Congress, 110th Congress, 2nd session, Committee Print no.110-146.
---, The Economist (2006), “No Time Like the Present”, Survey of China.
---,The Telegraph(2014), “Barack Obama announces $33bn in Africa investment”, Accessed on April 22 , 2017, Available at: https: //www .telegra ph.co.uk/ news/w orldnews/n orthamerica/u sa/11015090/Barack-Obama-announces-33bn-in-Africa-investment.html ---,The White House Office of the Press
Secretary(2012), “Fact Sheet: The New Strategy Toward Sub-Saharan Africa” , Accessed on November 7 , 2017, Available at: https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=713126
---, The White House(2006), “President Delivers State of the Union Address” , Accessed on June 15 , 2017, Available at:https://www.hsdl.org/c/president-bush-delivers-2006-state-of-the-union-address-transcript-available-here/
---,United Nations(1958),’No.4307: India and People’s Republic of China’, United Nations Treaty Series, Vol.299.
,Xinhua News Agency(2011), China’s Foreign Aid’, Accessed on September 19 , 2018, Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com /english2010 /china/2011-04/21/ c_13839683_6.htm.
---,WITS Journalism(2015),“Africa-China Reporting Project: FOCAC Themed Grants 2015”, University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, Accessed on July 20 , 2018, Available at: http://china-africa-reporting.co.za/focac-themed-grants-2015/