بررسی رابطه میان تروریسم و حق حیات در پرتو رویه قضایی بین‌المللی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای حقوق بین الملل عمومی، گروه حقوق عمومی و بین الملل، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 استاد گروه حقوق بین الملل، دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
حق حیات، یکی از حقوق بنیادین و اساسی بشر است و به جرأت می­توان گفت که هیچ یک از حقوق و آزادی­های بنیادین بشر به اندازه این حق در اسناد بین‌المللی حقوق بشری مورد حمایت قرار نداشته است. در سال‌های اخیر، مبارزه با تروریسم نیز به یکی از اولویت­های اساسی جامعه بین‌المللی مبدل شده است. می­توان گفت هیچ عرصه­ای از عرصه­های حقوق بین‌الملل معاصر به اندازه مبارزه با تروریسم با چنین رشد و تحول سریعی مواجه نبوده است. مسأله مهمی که در این راستا قابل طرح است، این است که نسبت مبارزه با تروریسم و حق حیات چیست؟ در این راستا، پرسش­های چندی به شرح ذیل قابل طرح هستند: آیا بر اساس موازین بین‌المللی حقوق بشر می­توان از سلاح مرگبار علیه مظنونان به عملیات تروریستی استفاده کرد؟ آیا کشتار هدفمند رهبران تروریست­ها با موازین بین‌المللی حقوق بشر مطابقت دارد؟ آیا مرگ تروریست­ها در زندان، دولت‌ها را در معرض اتهام نقض حقوق بشر قرار می­دهد؟ و در نهایت، آیا اعدام مرتکبان عملیات تروریستی خلاف موازین حقوق بشر است؟ این مقاله با بررسی رویه قضایی بین‌المللی به این نتیجه می­رسد که اگرچه مبارزه با تروریسم، در برخی موارد می‌تواند به نقض مشروع و قانونی حق حیات منجر شود؛ اما مواردی که به طور قانونی می‌توان چنین امری را انجام داد، بسیار محدود و مضیق هستند و لذا باید برای مبارزه با تروریسم، حتی الامکان از مکانیزم‌هایی استفاده نمود که حق حیات را نقض نمی‌کنند. روش تحقیق در این مقاله، بررسی تحلیلی آرای محاکم بین‌المللی حقوق بشری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Relationship between Terrorism and the Right to Life in Light of the International Judicial Precedent

نویسندگان [English]

  • Marzieh Ghobadi 1
  • Seyyed Mohammad Ghari Seyyed Fatemi 2
1 Ph.D Candidate, Islamic Azad University
2 Professor, International Law, Faculty of Law, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract:
The human right to life is one of the most fundamental and inalienable rights of the human beings. No other rights or freedom have such great emphasis and categorical support in international human rights documents like the right to life. In recent years fight with terrorism has become one of the priorities of international community and the development of the subject in international law has been considerable. The question which is raised here is “what is the relation between the fight with terrorism and right to life?” Here some fundamental questions are raised “Whether on basis of international regulations use of lethal weapons against the suspects in terrorist activities?” Is the purposeful killing of the terrorist leaders is conforming to international human rights regulations? Whether the death of the terrorist in jail does blame the governments with breach of human rights violation? Whether the execution of those involved in terrorist operations is against human rights regulations? The present article by reviewing the international legal precedent come to the conclusion that although the fight against terrorism can lead to certain legal and legitimate violation of life to right but the instances which legally can violate the right to life is very limited and rare. Therefore as a general rule for the fight against terrorism those mechanism should be used which do not violate the right to life. The human rights courts and tribunals have repeatedly insisted that right to life preside all other values in human society, including the fight against terror. The methodology used in the paper is reviewing the verdicts of international human rights courts.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Key words: Human rights
  • Execution
  • Extrajudicial killings
  • lethal weapons

منابع

الف) فارسی

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