عنوان مقاله [English]
The human right to life is one of the most fundamental and inalienable rights of the human beings. No other rights or freedom have such great emphasis and categorical support in international human rights documents like the right to life. In recent years fight with terrorism has become one of the priorities of international community and the development of the subject in international law has been considerable. The question which is raised here is “what is the relation between the fight with terrorism and right to life?” Here some fundamental questions are raised “Whether on basis of international regulations use of lethal weapons against the suspects in terrorist activities?” Is the purposeful killing of the terrorist leaders is conforming to international human rights regulations? Whether the death of the terrorist in jail does blame the governments with breach of human rights violation? Whether the execution of those involved in terrorist operations is against human rights regulations? The present article by reviewing the international legal precedent come to the conclusion that although the fight against terrorism can lead to certain legal and legitimate violation of life to right but the instances which legally can violate the right to life is very limited and rare. Therefore as a general rule for the fight against terrorism those mechanism should be used which do not violate the right to life. The human rights courts and tribunals have repeatedly insisted that right to life preside all other values in human society, including the fight against terror. The methodology used in the paper is reviewing the verdicts of international human rights courts.
اسماعیلپور، حامد .(1389). حق آزادی و امنیت شخصی در آرای دیوان اروپایی حقوق بشر، نشر مجمع تشخیص مصلحت نظام، مرکز تحقیقات استراتژیک.
آشوری، محمد .(1383). مفاهیم عدالت و انصاف از دیدگاه کنوانسیون اروپایی حقوق بشر، زیر نظر محمد آشوری،حقوق بشر و مفاهیم مساوات، انصاف و عدالت، نشر گرایش.
امیرارجمند، اردشیر.(1381). مجموعه اسناد بینالمللی حقوق بشر، جلد اول، اسناد جهانی، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه شهید بهشتی.
سید فاطمی، سید محمد قاری .(1388). حقوق بشر در جهان معاصر، دفتر دوم، جستارهایی تحلیلی در حقها و آزادیها،مؤسسه مطالعات و پژوهشهای حقوقی شهر دانش، تهران.
عبداللهی، محسن .(1388). تروریسم، حقوق بشر و حقوق بشردوستانه، مؤسسه پژوهشهای حقوقی شهر دانش، تهران.
کولیور، ساندارا .(1379). «آزادی، حق و امنیت»، ترجمه علی اکبر آقایی، فصلنامه مطالعات راهبردی، سال سوم، شماره چهارم، زمستان 1379، شماره مسلسل 10.
Bates, Elizabeth Stubbins,(2011) Terrorism and International Law, Accountability Remedies and Reform, A Report of the IBA Taskforce on Terrorism, Oxford University Press
Bedjaoui, Mohammed.(1991) International Law: Achievements and Prospects. Paris: UNESCO
Boas, Gideon,(2012) Public International Law, Contemporary Principles and Perspectives, Edward Elgar Publications
Cassese Antonio, (2003) International Law, Oxford University Press
Ibrai, Said,(2009) The Arab and Islamic Contributions of the fight against Terrorism, International Legal Dimension of Terrorism, Edited by: Pablo Antonio Fernandez, MartinusNijhoff Publications, Lieden
Nowak, Nowak, Manfred.(1993) U.N. Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: CCPR Commentary. Kehl: N.P. Engel
Roberts, Adam, (2000) The So-called Right of Humanitarian Intervention, Parkville, Vic.: Trinity College, the U of Melbourne
Steiner, Henry J., and Philip Alston, (1996) International Human Rights in Context: Law, Politics, Morals: Text and Materials. Oxford: Clarendon
Walker, Clive,(2011) Terrorism and the Law, Oxford University Press
Baldvin, David , (1997) The Concept of Security, Review of International Studies, 1997 (23)
Buscaglia, Edgardo,(2000) "Law and economics of evelopment." Encyclopedia of law and economics, Bouckaert, Boudewijn, and Gerrit De. Geest. Encyclopedia of Law and Economics. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2000
Finucane, Brian, (2012) Enforced Disappearance as a Crime Under International Law: A Neglected Origin in the Laws of War, the Yale Journal of International Law, Vol, 35
Krause, Keith and Michael C. Williams,(1996) Broadening the Agenda of Security: Politics and Methods, Mershon International Studies Review, 40 (2)
Kretzmer, David,(2005) Targeted Killings of Suspected Terrorists: Extra-Judicial Executions or Legitimate Means of Defense? 16 European Journal of International Law
O’Connell, Mary Ellen, Unlawful Killing with Combat Drones: A Case Study of Pakistan, 2004-2009
Council of Europe, Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism, 16 May 2005, ETS No. 196.
Draft Principles On Human Rights And The Environment,
/CN.4/Sub.2/1994/9, Annex I (1994).
uropean Union: Council of the European Union, Council Framework Decision 2002/584 on the European Arrest Warrant and the Surrender Procedures between Member States, 13 June 2002, -002/584/JHA.
Human Rights Committee, General Comment No 29, States of Emergency (Article 4), CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.11, 31 August 2001.
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation, 23 September 1971, 974 UNTS 177.
Organization of African Unity (OAU), OAU Convention on the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism , 14 June 1999.
Organization of American Stated (OAS) Convention to Prevent and Punish Acts of Terrorism Taking the Form of Crimes against Persons and Related Extortion that are of International Significance 1971
Organization of American States (OAS), Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ("Protocol of San Salvador"), 16 November 1999, A-52.
Organization of American States (OAS), Inter-American Convention on Extradition, 25 February 1981.
Organization of American States (OAS), Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture, 9 December 1985, OAS Treaty Series, No. 67.
Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), Convention of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference on Combating International Terrorism, 1 July 1999, Annex to Resolution No: 59/26-P.
PACE Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights, Secret Detentions and Illegal Transfers of Detainees Involving Council of Europe Member States: Second Report, Doc 11302 rev, 11 June 2007
Regional Treaties, Agreements, Declarations and Related, Treaty on Cooperation among the States Members of the Commonwealth of Independent States in Combating Terrorism, 1999, 4 June 1999, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/47fdfb290.html [accessed 6 November 2014] 1999
UN General Assembly, Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, 10 March 1988, No. 29004.
UN General Assembly, International Convention against the Taking of Hostages, 17 December 1979, A/RES/34/146.
UN General Assembly, International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism: resolution / adopted by the General Assembly , 25 February 2000, A/RES/54/109.
UN General Assembly, International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings: resolution / adopted by the General Assembly., 9 January 1998, A/RES/52/164.
UN General Assembly, Measures to eliminate international terrorism: resolution / adopted by the General Assembly, 18 December 2006, A/RES/61/40.
آرای دادگاهها و دیوانهای بینالمللی
Al Skieni and Others V Secretary of State for Defense  UKHL
ArarVAschroft et al, US 2nd Court of Appeals, 06-421-cv, 2 November 2009.
BoumedieneVBush, 128 US S Ct 2229, 2262, 171 L.Ed. 2d. 41 (2008)
ErgiVTurkey (2001) 23 EHRR 388.
European Court of Human Rights, Grand Chamber, A and Others V United Kingdom (2009) EHRR
Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights, SurekV Turkey, (No 4), Application No 2476/94, Judgment of 8 July 1999
HamdanVRamsfeld, 126 S Ct 2749, 548 US 557 (2006)
Human Rights Committee, Nabil Sayadi& Patricia Vinck V Belgium, Communication No 1472/2006, CCPR/C/94/D/1472/2006,Views, 22 October 2008.
International Court of Justice, Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua(Nicaragua V.United States), 27 June 1986
JegatheeswaraSarmaV Sri Lanka, Communication No 950/2000, 31 July 2003,
McCann V United Kingdom, (1995) 21 EHRR 97
Mehram Ali et al V federation of Pakistan,  PLD SC
R V Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, ex parte Binyam Mohamed  EWCA Civ 158, 26 February 2010.
Rasul et al V Bush, 542 US 446 (2004)
Sunday Times V UK (1979) 2 EHRR 245
Supreme Court of Israel sitting as the High Court of Justice, Nasser V IDF West Bank Military Commander, HCJ 7733/04
Varnava and Others V Turkey, Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights