نقش کنگره ایالات‌ متحده در وضع تحریم‌ها علیه ایران

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگر، موسسه مطالعات راهبردی جهان پژوه

2 هیئت علمی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

چکیده
سیستم سیاسی حکومتی امریکا مبتنی بر سیستم تفکیک قواست که با تقسیم قدرت در میان قوا و ایجاد سیستم توازن و بررسی، هر قوه بر عملکرد دیگری نظارت می­کند. لذا به­خاطر همین سیستم توازن و بررسی، دوباره در عرصه تصمیم‌گیری؛ به­خصوص تصمیم‌گیری‌های سیاست خارجی، تداخل نقشی میان رئیس‌جمهور و کنگره وجود دارد. این تداخل نقشی در عرصه سیاست خارجی امریکا در قبال ایران نمود داشته، هر یک سعی می­کنند تا سیاست‌های خود را در قبال ایران تحقق بخشند. این تحقیق با استفاده از روش توصیفی و با مراجعه به متن قوانین تصویب شده در کنگره علیه ایران و همچنین، جلسات استماع برگزار شده در ارتباط با ایران، در پی پاسخ به این پرسش اصلی است که کنگره چه نقشی در پیشبرد سیاست‌های امریکا در مقابل ایران داشته و چگونه به دنبال ایفای این نقش است؟ فرضیه این پژوهش، آن است که هر زمان که کنگره وارد تصمیم‌گیری‌های سیاست خارجی امریکا علیه ایران شده، با تصویب قوانین باعث شده رفتار امریکا نسبت به ایران تهاجمی­تر و با اعمال سیاست‌های سرسختانه‌تری همراه گردد. درواقع، کنگره در ارتباط با موضوع ایران کوشش کرده تا دست برتر را در تعیین سیاست خارجی امریکا نسبت به رئیس‌جمهور داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of the United States Congress in Imposing of Sanctions against Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • hossein moradi 1
  • hossein daheshyar 2
1 Ph.D. student in international relations, Allameh Tabatabaei University.
2 Associate professor, international relations department, Allameh Tabatabaei University.
چکیده [English]

Abstract:
The United States political system is based on separation of powers with dividing the power between each branches and the check and balance system oversee the other branches. As result due to this system of check and balance there is always a struggle between the president and the Congress in foreign policy matters. Thus each branch under the constitution claims that has the right or power to give its opinion on foreign policy matters. This interference of the role has also shown itself in the case of the United States foreign policy vis-à-vis Iran and each branch particularly the legislative branch tries to exert his views about Iran. The present article by a descriptive and analytical method and by referring to bills approved in the Congress against Iran and also the hearing held about Iran wants to answer this question that what role the United States Congress plays in furtherance of policies about Iran and how it tries to pursue it? The hypothesis is that every time Congress has entered into US foreign policy decision making process, the result has been the adoption of aggressive and stringent decisions about Iran. In fact the Congress has tried to have upper hand over the president in determining the policies against Iran.    

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Congress
  • Foreign policy
  • Separation of Power
  • check and balance
  • Sanction
Ahmadi. Alireza (2013), “Iran in the American Executive-Legislative Relationship”, Iranian Review of Foreign Affairs, Vol. 4, No. 3,

Armbruster. Ben, (Dec 3, 2013), “Senator Says New Iran Sanctions Will Empower Hard-Liners In Tehran”, Retrieved From: https://thinkprogress. org/senator-says-new-iran,  (2016/01/25)

Carter. R, J. Scott & C. Rowling.(2004), “Setting a Course: Congressional Foreign Policy Entrepreneurs in Post-World War II U.S. Foreign Policy”, International Studies Perspectives, Vol.5, No.3

Cohen. David,( December 1, 2011), Hearing of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, “U.S. Strategic Objectives toward Iran”, Retrieved From: http://www.gpo.gov   , (2016/02/16)

Crail. Peter. (2010), “House Adopts Iran Oil Sanctions”, Retrieved From: http://www.armscontrol.org , (2015/11/12)

Fisher, L., R. Hendrickson & S. R. Weissman,(2008), “Congress at War”, Foreign Affairs, Retrieved From: http://www.foreignaffairs.com, (2016/01/05)

Foster, Peter. (Feb. 26, 2013), “US Congress in urgent call to ECB to tighten sanctions on Iran”, Retrieved From: http:// www.telegraph. co.uk/ news/ worldnews/middleeast/iran, (2016/01/10)

Garcia. M. J. (2009), “NATO Enlargement: Senate Advice and Consent”, CRS Reports for Congress

Glandstone. Rick. (2013), “Lawmakers Introduce Bipartisan Measure to Toughen Iranian Sanctions”, Retrieved From: http://www. nytimes.com /2013/02/28, (2016/01/18)

Goldsmith. Jack,( March 9,2015),  “The Error in the Senators’ Letter to the Leaders of Iran”, Retrieved From: https://www.lawfareblog.com, (2015/11/12)

Greenwood. Max, (2017), “Trump to Congress: Syria strike was in 'vital national security interest' of US”, Retrieved From: http://thehill.com/ homenews /administration/327962-trump-sends-congress, (2017/09/22)

Henehan, Marie T. (2000), Foreign policy and Congress : an International Relations Perspective, United States of America,  The University of Michigan Press,

Hook. Steven W.(2011), U.S. Foreign Policy: the Paradox of World Power, third edition, Washington, CQ Press,

Jacobson, Michael.( 2008). "Sanctions against Iran: A Promising Struggle." Washington Quarterly, Vol. 31, No.3: PP.69-88

Johnson. L.(2014), “Amid Shift From War, Obama Embraces Sanctions As Tool of Foreign Policy”, Retrieved From: http://www.rferl.org , (2015/12/27)

Kronlund. Anna & Teemu Mäkinen,(2015), “Topicality of the Separation of Powers: the U.S Congress and Foreign Policy Processes”, Working Paper, The Finnish Institute of International Affairs,

Krutz, Glen S. and Jeffrey S. Peake(2009), Treaty Politics and the Rise of Executive Agreements : International Commitments in a System of Shared Powers, Ann Arbor : University of Michigan Press

La Franchi, Howard. (2010a. January 16). "Iran Nuclear Program: On Sanctions, Congress Ahead of Obama", Christian Science Monitor, Retrieved From: http://www.csmonitor.com, (2015/11/11)

La Franchi, Howard. (2010b. February 10). "Obama Administration Shifts Gears on Iran Sanctions", Christian Science Monitor, Retrieved From: http://www.csmonitor.com, (2015/11/12)

Landler, Mark, and Steven Lee Myers. ( 2012. JULY 31), "White House and Congress Are in Step Over Iran Sanctions", New York Times, Retrieved From: http://www.nytimes.com

Lawrence C. Dodd, (1986), “A Theory of Congressional Cycles: Solving the Puzzle of Change”, pp. 3-44. InGerald C. Wright  Jr., Leroy N. Rieselbach and Lawrence C. Dodd, Congress and Policy Change, New York, AGATHON PRESS.

Lee Ray. James,(2014), American Foreign Policy and Political Ambition, London, CQ Press,  second edition,

Lindsay, James M. (1994) Congress and the Politics of U.S. Foreign Policy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Lindsay, James M.(2003), “Deference and Defiance: The Shifting Rhythms of Executive-Legislative Relations in Foreign Policy”, Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 3, PP.530-546

Lynch, Colum, and Thomas Erdbrink. (2010. June 22), "Congress Strikes Deal on Tougher Sanctions for Iran's Suppliers." Washington Post, Retrieved From: http://www.washingtonpost.com , (2015/012/23)

McArthur. Shirl,(2012.October) “Congress Passes Iran Sanctions Bill—Harsh, but It Could Have Been Worse”, Retrieved From: http://www.wrmea.org, (2015/12/20)

Norman. Andrew, (2017), “Constitutional Authority Statements and the

Powers of Congress: An Overview”, Retrieved From: www.crs.gov, (2017/9/25)

Phillips. Amber, (2015. July 14), “Can Congress Stop The Iran Deal?”, from: http://www.washingtonpost.com, (2015/11/12)

Raffaella. Baritono, (2014. January) “an Invitation to Struggle? Congress and U.S. Foreign Policy", Analysis No. 229,

Rennack. Dianne E. (2016), “Iran: U.S. Economic Sanctions and the Authority to Lift Restrictions”, Congressional Research Service.

Rogin, Josh. (2012. November 30),"White House Opposed New Iran Sanctions", Retrieved From: http://foreignpolicy.com, (2016/02/01)

Spanier. John, Eric M. Uslaner,(1985), Americac Foreign Policy Making and the Democratic Dilemmas, Fourth Edition, CBS College Publishing, New York,

Baker. Spring, (2002) “Who Makes American Foreign Policy?”, the Heritage Foundation, Retrieved From: http://www.heritage.org (2015/09/27)

Sundquist, James L. (1981). The Decline and Resurgence of Congress, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Tama. Jordan,(2015), “Bipartisanship in a Polarized Age: The U.S. Congress and Foreign Policy Sanctions”,  School of International Service, American University, Retrieved From: http://www.american.edu/sis/faculty, (2016/01/18)

Vance. Cyrus R., (1984), “Striking the Balance: Congress and the President Under the War Powers Resolution”, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Vol. 133, No.79. pp.79 – 95

Weed. Matthew C., (2016), “A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Issues and Current Proposals”, Congressional Research Service,

Weed. Matthew C.(2015), “The War Powers Resolution: Concepts and Practice”, Congressional Research Service,

Wei. Xiaohong, (2009), “How the U.S. Constitution Separates National Power”, Early America Review, Vol. 8 Issue. 4, Retrieved From: http:// www.earlyamerica.com

 “War Power”, Retrieved From:https://www.loc.gov/law/help/war-powers.php  

www.whitehouse.gov (A), “Statement by the President on H.R. 1540”, (December 31, 2011), Retrieved From: http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011, (2016/05/15)

www.whitehouse.gov (B), “President Barack Obama's State of the Union Address”, (January 28, 2014), Retrieved from: https://obamawhitehouse. archives.gov/the-press-office/2014/01/28/, (2016/06/11)

اسناد

S.Res.239,“Vandenberg Resolution”, from: http://avalon.law.yale.edu 

Constitution of the United States, Retrieved from:  https:// www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-CONAN-1992/pdf/GPO-CONAN, (2015/4/03)

H.Con. Res.55: “Directing the President, pursuant to section 5(c) of the War Powers Resolution, to remove United States Armed Forces deployed to Iraq or Syria on or after August 7, 2014, other than Armed Forces required to protect United States diplomatic facilities and personnel, from Iraq and Syria”. Retrieved from: https://www.congress.gov/bill/114th-congress, (2015/07/11)

Public Law 107-40 Joint Resolution “To authorize the use of United States Armed Forces against those responsible for the recent attacks launched against the United States”, Retrieved from: https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills , (2015/7/20)

Public Law 114–17, “To provide for congressional review and oversight of agreements relating to Iran’s nuclear program, and for other purposes”, (Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015), Retrieved from: https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-114hr1191enr/pdf/BILL , (2017/06/20)

H.R. 2914, “the Iran Refined Petroleum Sanctions Act of 2009”.  Retrieved from: https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/111/s908, (2015/07/10)

S. 2799, “the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2009”. Retrieved from: https://www.govtrack.us /congress/ bills/111/hr2194, (2015/06/16)

Public Law 112-81, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012, Retrieved from: https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-112publ81 , (2015/06/16)

S.Amdt.3232, “To Enhance Sanctions Imposed With Respect to Iran”, Retrieved from: https://www.congress.gov /amendment/112 th-congress/senate-amendment /3232 (2015/07/25)

Public Law 112-239, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013, Retrieved from: https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-112publ239/pdf ,(2015/07/28)