تحول روابط بین‌الملل از خِرَدگرایی به تأمل‌گرایی و ظهور فرانظریه به مثابه متا- فیزیک نوین

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار رشتۀ روابط بین الملل دانشگاه خوارزمی

چکیده

چکیده
مشهور است که چشم‌انداز تأمل‌گرا در روابط بین‌الملل معاصر، بازتاب‌ ‌دهندۀ امر اجتماعی/ معنایی است. از این منظر، چشم‌انداز مذکور با تأمل در باب فرایند نظریه‌پردازی، به تعهدات فرانظری معطوف شده است. نویسنده با روی آوردن به رویکرد فلسفی و بهره جستن از بصیرت‌های هوسرل و هَیدگر، به‌ویژه دو پنداشت نیّت‌مندی و زمان‌مندی، می‌کوشد با اتخاذ نگاهی انتقادی، فرانظریه روابط بین‌الملل معاصر را واسازد. استدلال نویسنده آن است که در تحول چشم‌اندازهای نظریه‌پردازی در روابط بین‌الملل، متا-فیزیک چشم‌انداز خِرَدگرا که مبتنی بر بازی بی‌پایان حاکمیت و آنارشی در نظام بین‌الملل آنارشیک متشکل از دولت‌های دارای حاکمیت بود، به متا- فیزیک چشم‌انداز تأمل‌گرا مبتنی برتأملات فرانظری با محوریت وجوه سه‌گانۀ هستی‌شناسی، معرفت‌شناسی و روش‌شناسی، تحول یافته است. فرضیۀ این مقاله، آن است که فرانظریه/ متا-فیزیک روابط بین‌الملل معاصر برای نظریه‌پرداز تعلیق شده و می‌توان به جای نظریه، به نظریه­پرداز معطوف شد. نتیجه آنکه فهم نظریه‌پرداز از معنای روابط بین‌الملل معاصر، مشروط به اشتراک افق زمانی هستندگیِ وی در کنار دیگر انسان‌ها/ هستندگان بوده و تبعاً شناخت وی نیز از آنها خارج از این حیث زمانی نیست. در این پژوهش، گردآوری داده‌ها به روش کتابخانه‌ای انجام و روش تحیل محتوا برای تحلیل داده‌ها استفاده شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Development in International Relations from Rationalism to Reflectivism

نویسنده [English]

  • Seyed Ali Monavari
چکیده [English]

Abstract:
It is well-known that the reflectivist perspective represents the ideational turn in the contemporary international relations. In this context, one can reflect on the strands of theorizing which revolved around the meta-theoretical commitments to the triad modes of ontology, epistemology and methodology. In this paper the author tries to apply the philosophical insights of two conspicuous masters of twenty century philosophers, Husserl and Heidegger to take a critical reflection on, and so deconstruct the situation of reflectivism in IR. In author’s view development in the perspectives of theorizing in international relations, the metaphysics of rationalism based on the endless game of sovereignty and anarchy concerning anarchical international system of the sovereign states has been translated into the meta-physics of reflectivism representing the meta-theoretical questions. Drawing on Husserl and Heidegger points of view, especially conceptions of intentionality and temporality, the author reduces meta-theory/ meta-physics of the contemporary international relations to theorist by shifting to her or his instead of theory. To sum up, theorist’s understanding of the meaning of contemporary International Relations is contingent upon her or his temporally shared being-ness horizon with the other humans/ beings, and subsequently, her or his knowledge of them depends on their temporality. The methodology used in the paper in content analysis and the collection of data is by library material.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Key words: International Relations
  • Rationalism
  • Reflectivism
  • Meta-theory
  • Meta-physics
Aho, Kevin A. (2009). Heidegger’s Neglect of the Body. New York: State University of New York Press.

Aiko, Yuichi .(2006). "Rousseau and Saint-Pierr’s: Peace Ptoject: A Critique of History of International Relation Theory". In Beate Jahn, ed. Classical Theory in International Relations. Cabridge: Cabridge University Press.

Barnstein, Steven; Ned Lebow, Richard; Gross Stein, Janice; and Weber, Steven .(2000). "God Gave Physics the Easy Problems: Adapting Social Science to Unpredictable World". European Journal of  International Relations 6(1): 43-76. Burchill, Scott and Linklater, Andrew (2005) "Introduction". In Scott Burchill et al. Theories of International Relations. Third Edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1-28.

Chernoff, Fred .(2005). The Power of International Theory: Reforging the link to Foreign Policy-making through Scientific Enquiry. London: Routledge.

Chernoff, Fred .(2007). Theory and Metatheory in International Relations: Concepts and Contending Accounts. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Cobb-Stevens, Richard .(1994). "The beginnings of phenomenology: Husserl and his predecessors". In Richard Kearney, ed. Routledge History of Philosophy, Volume VIII: Twentieth-Century Continental Philosophy. London: Routledge, 5-31.

Diez, Thomas and Stesns, Jill .(2005). "A Useful Dialogue? Haberas and International Relations". Review of International Studies 31: 127-40.

Elliott, Brian .(2005). Phenomenology and Imagination in Husserl and Heidegger. London: Routledge.

Follesdal, Dagfinn (1988) "Husserl on Evidence and Justification". In Robert Sokolowski, ed. Edmund Husserl and Phenomenological Tradition. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press.

Gadamer, Hans-Georg .(2006). A Century of Philosophy: Hans-Georg Gadamer in Conversation with Riccardo Dottori. Translated by Rod Coltman with Sigrid Koepke. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group.

Guzzini, Stefano .(2013). "The End of International Relations Theory: Stages of Reflexivity and Modes of Theorizing". European Journal of International Relations 19(3): 521-41.

Heidegger, Martin .(1985). History of the Concept of the Time: Prolegomena. Translated by Theodore Kisiel. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Heidegger, Martin .(2001). Being and Time. Translated by John Macquarrie and Edward Rabinson. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Jackson, Patrick Thaddeus .(2011). The Conduct of Inquiry in International Relations: Philosophy of Science and its Implication for the Study of World Politics. London: Routledge.

Keller, Pierre .(1999). Husserl and Heidegger on Human Experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kratochwil, Friedrich .(2006). "History, Action and Identity: Revisiting the Second Great Debate and Assessing its Importance for Social Theory". European Journal of International Relations 12(1): 5-29.

Leysense, Anthony .(2008). The Critical Theory of Robert W. Cox: Fugitive or Guru?. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Moran, Dermot .(2000). Introduction to Phenomenology. London: Routledge.

Moravcsik, Andrew .(2003). "Liberal International Relations Theory: A Scientifc Assessment". In Colin Elman and Mariam Fendius Elman, eds. Progress in International Relations Theory: Appraising the Field. London: MIT Press: 159-204.

Morgenthau, Hans. J. (1993). Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. Revised by K.W. Thompson. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Mulhall, Stephen .(2005). Routledge Philosophy Guide Book to Heidegger and Being and Time. Second Edition. London: Routledge.

Neufeld, Mark A. (1995). The Restructuring of International Relations Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Odysseos, Louiza (2009) "Martin Heidegger". In Jenny Edkins and Nick Vaughan-Williams, eds. Critical Theorists and International Relations. London: Routledge, 205-16.

Odysseos, Louiza .(2010). "Deconstructioning the Modern Subject: Method and Possibility in Martin Heidegger’s Hermeneutics of Facticity". In Cerwyn Moore and Chris Farrands, eds. International Relations Theory and Philosophy: Interpretive Dialogues. London: Routledge. 

Patomaki, Heikki .(2002). After International Relations: Critical Realism and the (Re)construction of World Politics. London: Routledge.

Patomaki, Heikki and Wight, Colin .(2000). "After Postpositivism? The Promises of Critical Realism". International Studies Quarterly 44: 213-37.

Pattison, George .(2000). Routledge Philosophy Guide Book to the Late Heidegger. London: Routledge.

Phillips, Andrew Bradley .(2005). "Constructivism". In Martin Griffiths, ed. International Relations Theory for the 21st Century. London: Routledge.

Pouliot, Vincent .(2007). "Sobjectivism: Toward a Constructivist Methodology". International Studies Quarterly: 51: 359-84.

Rengger, Nicholas .(2006a). "Theorizing World Politics for a New Century". International Affairs 82(3): 427-30.

Reus-Smit, Christian .(2013). "Beyond Metatheory? ". European Journal of International Relations 19(3): 589-608.

Ruggie, John G. (1998). Constructing the World Politics: Essays on international Institutionalization. London: Routledge.

Schuett, Robert .(2010). "Classical Realism, Freud and Human Nature in International Relations". History of Human Sciences 23(2): 21-46.

Scruton, Roger .(1995). A Short History of Modern Philosophy From Descartes to Wittgenstein. Second Edition. London: Routledge.

Smith, David Woodruff .(2007). Husserl. London: Routledge.

Smith, Steve .(1996). "Positivis and Beyond". In Steve Smith, Ken Booth and Marysia Zalewski, eds. International Theory: Positivism and Beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge Press.

Spegele, Roger D. (1980) "Deconstructing Methodological Falsification in International Relations". The American Political Science Review 74(1): 104-22.

Taminiaux, Jacques .(1994). "Philosophy of existence 1: Heidegger". In Richard Kearney, ed. Routledge History of Philosophy, Volume VIII: Twentieth-Century Continental Philosophy. London: Routledge.

Tonner, Philip .(2010). Heidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of Being. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Waever, Ole .(2005). "Figures of International Thought: Introducing Persons Instead of Paradigms". In Iver B. Neumann and Ole Wæver, eds. The Future of International Relations: Masters in the Making?. London: Routledge, 1-40.

Waltz, Kenneth. N. (1979). Theory of International Politics. Reading: Addison-Wesley Press.

Weber, Cynthia .(2010). International Relation Theory: A Critical Introduction. London: Routledge.

Wendt, Alexander .(1992). "Anarchy Is What States Make of It: The Social Construction of Power Politics". International Organization 49(2): 391-425.

Wendt, Alexander .(1999). Social Theory of International Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Yost, David S. (1994). "Political Philosophy and the Theory of International Relations". International Affairs 70(2): 263-90.