تبیین شاخص های دموکراسی از منظر جان لاک

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار و عضو هیات علمی گروه علوم سیاسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اهواز shiva_jalalpoor@yahoo.com

2 دکتری تاریخ و عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحدشهرضا shohrehjalalpoor@yahoo.com

3 کارشناسی ارشد علوم سیاسی دانشگاه مفید قم sayed_majidmousavi@yahoo.com

چکیده

اندیشه سیاسی «پدر لیبرالیسم» زمینه های نظری لازم جهت شکل گیری بحث‌های جدی پیرامون مفاهیمی چون قانون طبیعی و حقوق مبتنی برآن ، تفکیک قوا، سلطنت مشروطه و ... را در قرن 18 م فراهم آورد و آموزه‌های او به بستر رشد جنبش‌های دموکراتیک و لیبرال عصرهای بعد بدل شد. از این رو تحقیق حاضر در صدد بررسی شاخص های دموکراسی در اندیشه سیاسی جان لاک است .
در این مطالعه از روش گردآوری داده های کیفی استفاده می شود و شیوه تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها نیز به صورت توصیفی- تحلیلی خواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Explaining the Indexes of Democracy from John Locke’s View

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shiva Jalalpour 1
  • Shohreh Jalalpour 2
  • Sayed Majid Mosavi 3
چکیده [English]

The political thought of the “architect of democracy” and “the father of liberalism” prepared the theoretical ground for the formation of serious debates on concepts like natural law and law based on that, separation of powers, constitutional monarchy etc… in eighteenth century. Locke’s teachings created the ground for the growth of democratic movements and later liberals. These thoughts first led to revolution in England, the independence movement of the United States and French revolution and later they were approved in the constitution of most of the countries. They were approved in General Assembly of the United Nations and universal declaration of human rights in thirty articles. These thoughts had tremendous impact in the formation and foundation of democratic institution in the West. The present article wants to examine and explain the indexes of democracy in John Locke’s political thought. The finding of the study shows that John Locke while giving importance to the place of individuals, individual wisdom, good nature of individual and individual right to avail one of natural non-deprivable rights derived from natural law and such individual which is having the above rights is having precedence to primitive society and government. Locke believes that the legitimacy of government depends on the natural rights of the individual and for guaranteeing maximum adherence to these rights he formed the details of the thought of social contact theory. The result of this contract was the formation of rational government and an agent which the exercise of its authority is limited through different mechanism. In this way from epistemological point of view he laid the foundation of individualism. From epistemological aspect he believes in rationalism and collective wisdom and from political aspect he was the advocate of people’s rule and constitutional government.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Liberalism
  • natural rights
  • Natural law
  • Social Contract
  • Democracy